An introduction to web development frameworks
Last week I wrote an introductory guide about how to develop web applications. I kept it short and simple on purpose because an in-depth description of the topic would fit in a book. I'd rather give an overview and then selectively dig in each step as I see fit.
Today, I will discuss about an important decision in the life of a web application developer, choosing a web development framework. It is important to note that choosing a framework is more about finding one that you're comfortable with rather than finding the best. All the popular ones are good in their own way and are used to run all sorts of web apps.
Thoughts on choosing the right web framework
Disclaimer: I haven't developed with all of the frameworks in existence so I'll just be giving my general impressions based on my research and understanding of the frameworks. If you disagree with anything, please leave a comment so that everyone can benefit from your experience and knowledge.
In my previous post, I mentioned 4 main frameworks (ignoring the multitude of PHP frameworks) and I forgot an important one: JSP (edit: actually not a framework, Struts would be a popular Java framework). I'm very unfamiliar with it so I won't talk about it, just know that it is based on Java and that it exists.
Microsoft's flavor is a pretty solid, although costly, option. By using ASP.NET, you'll be working with the very powerful C# language (or VB.NET if you prefer). The IDE of choice, Visual Studio, is one of the best code editors out there, but you'll have to shell out quit a bit of money if you want to use the more powerful features of the professional versions. Without surprise, you'll have to work in Windows and ASP.NET works best with the rest of the Microsoft stack, namely Microsoft SQL Server and IIS, both of which will take a hefty toll on your wallet. At the finish line, you end up with a reliable set of tools on which you can build a powerful and stable application.
There are two main ways of developing web applications with ASP.NET, you have the choice of using the tried and true WebForms or the newer MVC architecture based on RESTful principles (which is often the norm in the newer frameworks). If you are just starting web development I suggest that you go straight to MVC.
Mono is a software platform designed to allow developers to easily create cross platform applications. Sponsored by Novell (http://www.novell.com/), Mono is an open source implementation of Microsoft's .NET Framework based on the ECMA standards for C# and the Common Language Runtime. A growing family of solutions and an active and enthusiastic contributing community is helping position Mono to become the leading choice for development of Linux applications.
PHP is without a doubt the most popular programming language for the web. All web hosting companies support it and there's a ton of resources and tutorials available online. However, many people stay away from PHP because the language has been a mess for a long time, only recently receiving some much needed attention to its internal structure. Fortunately, there are plenty of frameworks available that hide most of the horrors of PHP. The most popular ones are CodeIgniter, Kohana, CakePHP, symfony, Zend framework, etc. I am not familiar with them, but if you're interested in knowing more, I suggest that you read this discussion on StackOverflow about choosing a PHP framework. Most of the PHP frameworks use the MVC architecture and adheres to the RESTful principles.
A powerful combination and, unlike PHP, there's no question about which framework to use, your only option is Django. If you're in love with Python, there's no doubt that this duo is for you, Django is a popular option and a solid offering once again. Furthermore, Python lovers benefit from a wonderful hosting option in Google's App Engine which offers cheap hosting (free until certain very large limits are reached). Needless to say, with Google's support behind Python, it's hard to go wrong with this option. Once again, this framework follows the RESTful concepts.
Ruby on Rails
Finally, the last contender in our list, Ruby on Rails. Rails abstracts a lot of the implementation work by providing a large array of generators (a common sight in other frameworks) and by simplifying the database work a lot by making heaving use of the ActiveRecord pattern. People tend to either love or hate this combination (Ruby is a scripting language) mostly because it seems to rely on "magic" in the sense that a lot of things happen behind the scenes without the developer knowing it. For example, Rails makes use of a pluralizer so that if you have a class name Person, you can access the instances by calling the People class. It's all based on logic, but you have to trust Rails and some people just want to be in control of everything. Overall, Ruby on Rails is also a powerful and solid framework with a huge community behind it. Many people also consider it the fastest framework to develop with, taking you from the conception of an idea to an actual working app faster than any other framework. Rails favors MVC applications following the RESTful guidelines.
I've tried my best to describe the particularities of each framework, I strongly encourage you to do your own research. Always keep in mind that there's no wrong answer, they're all capable of helping you build your web application. Keep in mind that this list is far from being a complete list, here's a more exhaustive list of web development frameworks.
Once you've chosen your framework, check the tutorials on their respective homepage and try them. As with anything new, you'll only become proficient with the tools after having used them a lot.